In the Ghardaia province of Algeria is a natural region called Mzab. It forms the northern part of Sahara Dessert. This place is being occupied by around 360,000 people (according to a census in the year of 2005). The Mzab is at the centre point of Wad Mzab valley. The origin of this place is a limestone plateau. A plateau is a raised area that is usually a plain terrain. In simple terms, it is said that it is a high land. Usually, these plateaus are formed by the volcanic eruptions or due to some sediment. In the case of Mzab, the plateau is formed by the sediment of carbonate rock. This in turn is composed of the left out fragments of the sea creatures like molluscs, coral and the similar organisms. This land will be rich in minerals and calcium. Due to this reason, the Mzab became a limestone plateau.
The letter and symbols being engraved in the Wad Mzab valley reveals that a Berber tribe lived in the southern part of Algeria in the past times. They are often referred to as Mozabites. These Mozabites became Muslims after the Muslim conquest of Maghreb. During 11th century, the Christianity also spread that converted some Mozabites to Christians. The Ottoman Algeria being occupied by France, the Mzab also came under the France. But within one year, this Mzab was returned back to the Algerian rule. Ghardaia turns out to be the capital of the Mzab.
Under the grouping named as a Pentapolis, Mzab is surrounded by five walled villages. Each of the citadels has a mosque whose minaret serves the purpose of watch tower. The houses over there are of standard size and similar type. They are constructed in concentric circles surrounding the mosque. The architecture is designed in such a way that the privacy is kept in mind. The building style of Mzab follows the style of Berber style. This type of architecture is also found in other parts of the places too. Visit this site to know in detail about the types of tools and things used I the construction. The valley of Mzab is being listed in the UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982. During the summer, the Mozabites gets migrated to one of the famous oasis in Sahara Dessert. It is the summer citadels. The local language of Mzab are Mozabites that belongs to the branch of Berber language.