the Ghardaia province of Algeria is a natural region called Mzab. It forms the
northern part of Sahara Dessert. This place is being occupied by around 360,000
people (according to a census in the year of 2005). The Mzab is at the centre
point of Wad Mzab valley. The origin of this place is a limestone plateau. A
plateau is a raised area that is usually a plain terrain. In simple terms, it
is said that it is a high land. Usually, these plateaus are formed by the
volcanic eruptions or due to some sediment. In the case of Mzab, the plateau is
formed by the sediment of carbonate rock. This in turn is composed of the left
out fragments of the sea creatures like molluscs, coral and the similar
organisms. This land will be rich in minerals and calcium. Due to this reason,
the Mzab became a limestone plateau.
letter and symbols being engraved in the Wad Mzab valley reveals that a Berber
tribe lived in the southern part of Algeria in the past times. They are often
referred to as Mozabites. These Mozabites became Muslims after the Muslim
conquest of Maghreb. During 11th century, the Christianity also
spread that converted some Mozabites to Christians. The Ottoman Algeria being
occupied by France, the Mzab also came under the France. But within one year,
this Mzab was returned back to the Algerian rule. Ghardaia turns out to be the
capital of the Mzab.
the grouping named as a Pentapolis, Mzab is surrounded by five walled villages.
Each of the citadels has a mosque whose minaret serves the purpose of watch
tower. The houses over there are of standard size and similar type. They are
constructed in concentric circles surrounding the mosque. The architecture is
designed in such a way that the privacy is kept in mind. The building style of
Mzab follows the style of Berber style. This type of architecture is also found
in other parts of the places too. Visit this site to know in detail about the types of tools and
things used I the construction. The valley of Mzab is being listed in the
UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982. During the summer, the Mozabites gets
migrated to one of the famous oasis in Sahara Dessert. It is the summer
citadels. The local language of Mzab are Mozabites that belongs to the branch
of Berber language.
Kurds ; also said as Kurdish are the group of people. This ethnic group of people are Iranian who are native to Western Asia. In terms of Geography, this is the mountainous area. It is known as Kurdistan that encompasses the south eastern Turkey, Iran in North West, Iraq and Syria in the northern direction. Exclaves of Kurds are present in Anatolia and Khorasan. Along with the Kurdish people, there is another community of people called Kurdish Diaspora in the cities of Turkey. The Kurdish people ranges from the 30 million to 45 million people. The Kurdish ethnic group of people speak a Kurdish and Zaza Gorani language that belongs to the Indo European family. The religious point of Kurds is also diverse who follows many religious aspects like Yarsanism, Yazidism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism.
is spoken by Kurds that has the collection of related dialects. The parts of
Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Syria are collectively known comprised as Kurdistan.
Kurdish is considered and spoken as a regional language in Iran. On the other
hand, it is spoken as a minority language in Armenia. Most of the Kurds are capable
of speaking their own mother language and other languages too. They are
bilingual or multilingual. The Kurdish dialects are classified as the northern group
(the Kurmanji dialect group), the Central group (a part of the Sorani dialect
group) and the Southern group (a part of Sorani dialect group that includes
Laki, Ardalani and Kermanshahi). The ethnic Kurds are Zaza and Gorani. One can see here now the dialects of Kurdish in
exact origin of the name is not clearly known to any one from the history of
times. It is hypothesized that the term Kurd was originated from a Persian
word. In the 20th and the 21st century, the women were
treated well and rights were given to them equally. Inspite of many
advancements in the Kurdish society; there are many social problems that still
persists in the society. Some of such problems are gender equality, child
marriages and forced marriages for the bride or groom, killings keeping honour
in the mind and so on.
the Kurds, the practice of piercing tattoos in their body is widespread. The
ink used in tattoo is made from some unusual combination of substances like
breast milk, some toxic substances taken from the bladder of some animals and
soot. They are more prevalent among women that among the men.
Kurdish beliefs and religions have been there in the world for centuries and
people all around the world have been following it for some time now. A lot of
research has been happening on this topic and there are more readers who want
to know more on this topic and thus understand what they are actually dealing
with. The people in this area have been present in the area where Abrahamic or
Semitic religions the Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are present and actually
religion that is most widely practiced on the Kurdish custom is Islam and
present in the area around the place. The area around Iraq is the most
prominent among others most of them like the Sunni Muslims and the Shiite
Muslims and even other people though are a minority have been known to practice
other religions like Christianity and Judaism and then even Aramaic which is
said to be the language spoken by Jesus Christ. There are other religions as
well in the lot Yezidism and Babaism that has the same property.
are one of the most tolerant sets of people where these people have been widely
recognized and they can be called as a set of few religions in which there is
equality among people and then there needs to be equality among people one way
or the other. The main purpose of the tolerance practice has to understand what
happens in the right manner as much as possible. The main purpose is that they
have been through the years the Kurdish people have to identify what is happening
in the right way as much as possible. They have been suffering through years of
sacrifice and even though in the hands of their brothers themselves.
Kurdish people cannot be called as they belong to the section of Islam as such
and they are related more to the section called Medes and are those that are
described in the Bible. Most Kurds were initially Christians and only in a
later stage, they were all converted to Islam. After the country Israel
separated and the Kurdish Jews have been told to Muslim neighbors who are very
sad based on their loss and have all been in a good place in which there is a
great honor in understanding their friends and enjoying the life with them as
we see these things as much
as possible and have a great relationship.
architecture in the area of Turkey has in itself been very famous and an
inspiration to a lot of people to enjoy through one way or the other. The
architecture style can be primarily called the Ottoman architecture and is one
particular period that excelled in creating architecture designs in the right
time as much as possible and that too I the maximum influence as much as
possible. There are three main periods of architecture through the Turkish
history and we can understand each one in detail and understand things one way
or the other.
first one is the Original and Ottoman architecture and was extended over a
hundred years and was mainly based on mosques and palaces around the period and
there are towers and spires as we see them all around and at the same time, we
can all be easily understood about the situation as such. But at the same time,
French and Italian architecture is also making sure that there is one way or
the other there is an influence one way or the other. At the same time, the
influence is visible and the art lovers have been understanding the situation
as much as possible.
next phase is the demonstration of other empires in which we can see the next
phase and then there is a representation of new architecture and then see that
the new architecture follows the fall of the Ottoman architecture. The simple
square and rectangles are the shape of the block structure and hence the domes
and the spires were not included as much as possible and then there is a
simple, straight design which is as good as the ottoman empire.
contemporary architecture in itself is found in all the places from the biggest
cities to the smallest villages as much as possible. Some architects have been
showcasing the wonderful architecture and then there is a guesthouse along with
community homes and even business building as much as possible. The other
contemporary hotels and other stadiums around the place are all famous for
their unique nature and even have been receiving accolades and awards.
is no just about the style and there is an importance to the place which makes
it a hub for energy production and is a place that has its own unique value
overbuilding and making sure there are unique designs which when we look at this is too good to miss.
Turkey is well known as a tourist’s delight all over
the world. It has great historical sites and beautiful seaside resorts to
attract all kinds of tourists. The seaside resorts which are beautiful and
luxurious spread along the Aegean and Mediterranean Seacoasts. It is also well
known for its culture and health and spa care. Istanbul, the capital, is on all
the lists of top places to visit. It has a large number of hotels catering to
all kinds of tourists. It is both a traditional as well as a modern city
offering different things to different people. Major attractions are:
Istanbul: this city is the largest city in
Turkey. It is a leading global city. It has many major attractions which are
historical in nature. It was the capital of Byzantine and Ottoman Empires. The
most famous buildings are Sultan Ahmed Mosque, the Hagia Sophia, the Basilica
Cistern, the Galata Tower, the Grand Bazaar, the Spice Bazaar, and many more
such amazing wonders.
Cruises and Beaches: many of the western
tourists come to Turkey looking for its pristine beaches. Most of the beach
resorts are located along the seacoast and is known as the Turkish Riviera.
Antalya is very famous and is called the tourism capital of Turkey.
Cultural Sites: there are many cultural
attractions all over the country. These include Ephesus, Troy, Pamukkale,
Trabzon, Konya, Didyma, Church of Antioch, Mardin and many more. Turkey has a
rich culture and almost every corner of the country has some or other hidden
Caves: Cappadocia caves are famous for
their uniqueness. These are ancient caves which were carved by nature and used
by monks and other people. Some of these caves have been turned into hotels.
You can stay there and have a unique experience. You can check the site online to learn
about the hotels.
Earlier, the number of tourists was really huge. Since
a couple of decades, the number has been coming down. The reasons have been
many. Mainly it is the political unrest which the country has seen. Also, the
region where Turkey is located is also not very stable politically and
economically. In fact, the government is going all out to attract tourists.
They have even asked the Turkish people living in different parts of the world
to spend their holidays in the country. It still attracts a big number of
tourists from Russia and some of the European countries. Apart from tourists,
Turkey also gets a large number of scholars and historians who come to do
research and learn more about the country and its culture.
People from different countries and different regions have
a very wide variety of cultural and traditional traits. Kurdistan is a
beautiful place with a lot of natural beauty and a long history. Unfortunately,
the situation in the last few decades has come to a point that tourists are
wary and very few people visit it. Kurdish Culture is very distinctive and
specific to the people of Kurdistan. It is a very ancient culture and the
Kurdish people are spread around in different areas. This has caused different
influences to get incorporated with their original culture. Kurds are now
living in western Asia, Middle-East, parts of Iraq, Iran, and, Syria. They are
also present in parts of Armenia, Azerbaijan and also in faraway South America.
There is a lot of controversy about the origins, history, and, their political
future of the Kurdish people. However, they have some very distinctive cultural
1. Language: the Kurdish language is part of the Indo-European
language family, on the Iranian branch. Because of their spread into different
countries and regions, the language has taken words and inflections from
different languages. It is written in the Arabic alphabet in Iraq and Syria and
in Latin script in Turkey.
2. Music: music is an important part of the Kurdish
culture. Traditionally it has been used to tell stories and record history.
Most popular musicians of the 20th century sang in Turkish or
Persian as well as in Kurdish. Apart from the language, the music has
influences from the different areas and the tunes and sounds are also
3. Food: they have some wonderful mouth-watering
recipes and you must try the authentic Kurdish food when you go there. Pej, which
is rice stuffed in grape leaves, shifta, which is meat patties, and ser u pe(
goat’s head, tongue, and feet) are some of the unique traditional dishes that
you can sample. Lamb and chicken are the staple meats. Vegetables and dairy
products also are a big part of the traditional Kurdish cuisine.
4. Religion: the Kurdish people have different
religions depending on the country in which they live or have cultural links
with. Most common religion among Kurds is Sunni Islam, which is practiced by
98% of Kurds living in Iraqi Kurdistan. Religion has come to be a major and
fundamental part of what it means to be a Kurd.
If you ever plan a
trip to Kurdistan or meet any Kurdish people in any of the areas that they are
in then it is good to show them that you know and understand their culture. You
can learn more on the web
and understand the uniqueness of these people.
Both of these countries are beautiful and attract a
lot of tourists. Unfortunately, there has been a decrease in the number of
tourists visiting these places. This is because of the various conflicts which
have plagued them for many decades. If you are still interested in these places
and would like to make the effort to go and see them then you have to plan
well. Gather as much information as possible. Talk to people who have visited
this place. Develop contacts with the locals if possible. Check all the
websites related to these places and also read as much as you can. Click this link for
There are some things which you can keep in mind while
planning your trip.
There is a lot of questioning at the
border. Everyone, including Arabs and other foreigners, will need to have
proper paperwork and documents. Deportation and sometimes even detainment is
possible if you are not prepared.
Start your tour with the safe areas. It is
better to spend some time and understand the situation before you venture into
the more dangerous areas. Erbil is one of the safest cities in the area.
Kurdistan has more restrictions for people coming from Turkey.
North Iraq was spared wars and is a
different place when compared with South Iraq. The terrorist activity here is
minimal and there has been a massive influx of foreign investment and aid.
Iraqi Kurdistan is now called the “gateway to Iraq”.
Be careful while talking to people. Don’t
get into discussions and arguments about nationalist issues with the locals.
Read and brush up your history before you start your travels.
Though Kurdish people are friendly, it is
good to understand that certain topics and issues should not be raked up. Never
call a Kurdish person an Iraqi.
Europeans will find the lack of women in
public spaces a bit strange. More than ninety percent of the people in the
crowd are men. Women rarely, if ever, travel alone.
If you are a woman, remember to cover your
hair and not hang around in tea houses or cafes on your own. Avoid going out
after dark by yourself.
You will find that the Kurdish people are friendly and
in fact, they are curious to learn about you. If given a chance they would like
to ask you all kind of questions. Most of them are not aware of other cultures
and are not well versed with world affairs. Remember to go with an open mind
and be ready for new experiences.
“Break the windows so that the birds are
free”, title not definitive of his last film, tells the story of a revolt
in a prison. The revolt is led by the children – we see Yilmaz Guney
explain to an amateur actor, of Uruguayan origin, who plays the role of a
guardian, how to react when one of the children threatens him with a huge
movie with children as actors is not an easy task. Ask any filmmaker and they
will tell you that working with children and animals are the two things which
require a lot of patience. It is even more difficult when the children don’t
speak the language or are from a foreign land. It was the same for Yilmaz Guney
who made a movie about a revolt in a prison. The revolt is led by children and
though there were adults in the movie, there were many children in the movie.
If you want to know more about this movie you can check on the related site.
But the revolt will be muted, and the film ends
on the arrival of new children to the prison. Reconstitute the very
special atmosphere that reigns inside a prison is very difficult with amateur
actors. Yilmaz Guney gets away with “poetic realism”.
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is also because the gold market is more for investors who are looking for
stability as compared to making returns in the market.
to investing in equity, silver is a safer haven to invest in, especially in
times of financial instability. Silver is also liquid, and this means that when
you want to sell silver in the market, you will easily find a buyer at the
price that you want to sell it.
Here is how you can invest in silver
are several ways in which you can invest in this precious metal. You can go
through the other details on The News Spy. Check This Out if you want to try out another volatile investment option
bullion is the most popular way to invest in silver. You can purchase the
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here you own the asset and can sell it when you want to. You are the one who is
responsible for storing and insuring it. The advantage is that you do not have
to deal with any third party when you buy bullions.
Silver Futures and Options
in silver options and future is a common method to invest in the commodities
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silver ETF will track the market price of silver. Investing in silver ETF is a
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the silver, which means that you do not have to worry about the logistics.
vieille abbaye dans un petit village au nord de la France
vit à l’heure turque. Sur le porche de
l’abbaye, l’inscription “Prison Centrale”,
en turc, insolite, à côté d’une
statue de la Vierge. Partout, des inscriptions à
la gloire de la Turquie kémaliste: “Quel
bonheur pour qui se dit Turc”. Dans la cour de
l’abbaye des murs ont été construits
pour délimiter les espaces dans lesquels les
prisonniers font leur promenade quotidienne sous la
surveillance d’un gendarme juché sur une
tour de guet. C’est étonnant la facilité
avec laquelle une abbaye se transforme en prison. Dans
l’allée qui mène au bâtiment
principal, une Cadillac, avec une plaque d’Ankara,
avance lentement au milieu d’une foule de femmes
coiffées d’un fichu et d’hommes au
Le tournage du “Mur”
côté de la camera, Yilmaz Guney, en train
de tourner l’arrivée de l’inspecteur
général des prisons — l’inspecteur
est un français, c’est même un membre
du cabinet de Jack Lang, le ministre de la culture.
Toujours souriant, d’une extrême douceur,
Yilmaz Guney se bat au milieu d’une armée
“Brisez les vitres pour que se libèrent
les oiseaux”, titre pas définitif de son
dernier film, raconte l’histoire d’une révolte
dans une prison. La révolte est dirigée
par les enfants — nous voyons Yilmaz Guney expliquer
à un acteur amateur, d’origine uruguayenne,
qui joue le rôle d’un gardien, comment réagir
quand un des enfants le menace avec un immense couteau
de cuisine. Mais la révolte sera matée,
et le film se termine sur l’arrivée de
nouveaux enfants à la prison. Reconstituer l’atmosphère
très spéciale qui règne à
l’intérieur d’une prison est très
difficile avec des acteurs amateurs. Yilmaz Guney s’en
tire en recourant au “réalisme poétique”.
Une armée de figurants et d’acteurs amateurs
Guney tourne avec une centaine d’enfants kurdes
qui dorment dans le dortoir de l’abbaye — certains
sont venus de Berlin Ouest — et avec entre 100 et 200
figurants adultes: gardiens de prison, parents de détenus,
qui travaillent dans les ateliers de confection ou dans
les usines de la région parisienne. Une centaine
de techniciens amateurs vivent aussi avec Guney dans
l’abbaye. Les enfants sont ravis, et de très
bons acteurs: “Imaginez quelle aventure cela peut
être pour des enfants qui, à Berlin ou
dans la banlieue parisienne, ne peuvent même pas
rêver d’une vie décente. Et les voilà
En temps normal les locaux de l’abbaye servent
de salles de classes pour l’école du village.
Une école bien traditionnelle; Sur le mur d’une
salle de classe enfantine on voit affiché au
mur le règlement, écrit par les écoliers,
avec notamment ceette règle: “Il est défendu
de rêver pendant les classes”. Pour être
plus libre, Guney a refusé les propositions de
grosses maisons de production. Mais le producteur qu’il
a choisi lui a imposé des conditions de travail
draconiennes. Rien ne doit filtrer sur le scénario
du film avant la date choisie par le producteur pour
le lancement. L’entretien que Yilmaz Guney a cependant
bien voulu nous accorder est une exception remarquable
à la consigne de silence qui lui a été
Q: Rétrospectivement, comment jugez-vous vos
films “Le Troupeau” (Suru) et “La
Yilmaz Guney: Comme tous les créateurs de Turquie
et du Kurdistan, nous avons rencontré sur notre
chemin des difficultés dûes à la
nature oppressive du régime. Durant toute ma
vie de créateur, j’ai été
amené à chercher des moyens parfois détournés
pour exprimer ma pensée, et je dois reconnaître
avec franchise que toutes mes oeuvres jusqu’à
ce jour n’ont pas totalement exprimé ce
que je voulais, ni dans leur forme ni dans leur esprit.
L’élément dominant de ces oeuvres,
c’est qu’elles sont des solutions de compromis.
“Le Troupeau”, en fait, c’est l’histoire
du peuple kurde, mais je n’ai même pas pu
utiliser la langue kurde dans ce film. Si on avait utilisé
le kurde, tous ceux qui ont collaboré à
ce film auraient été mis en prison.
Dans le cas de “Yol”, l’essentiel
devait être axé sur Diyarbekir, Ourfa et
Siirt. Bien que le film ait été monté
en Europe, je n’ai pas réussi à
faire tous les doublages en kurde. J’ai essayé
de créer cette atmosphère par des doublages,
par la musique…
Q: Puisque les principaux personnages de vos films
sont les Kurdes et le Kurdistan, comment pourrez-vous
continuer de tourner en dehors de votre pays?
Y.G: Ici, nous sommes devant l’impasse suivante:
nous n’avons pratiquement qu’un seul acteur
professionnel (Tuncel Kurtiz, qui joue le personnage
du père dans “Le Troupeau”); tous
les autres sont des amateurs qui n’ont jamais
joué dans un film. Il est impossible de faire
venir des acteurs professionnels de Turquie… et même
ceux qui sont en Europe n’osent pas venir jouer
avec moi: ils refusent même de me parler.
Q: Comment est-ce possible? les acteurs turcs ne sont
pas fiers de jouer pour un metteur en scène qui
a obtenu la Palme d’or à Venise?
Y.G: Ceux qui entonnent des chants révolutionnaires
dans les périodes de calme préfèrent
se cacher derrière les portes pendant les périodes
difficiles… Bref, j’ai un cameraman turc, mais
les techniciens ne sont pas professionnels; pour les
décors, par exemple, je n’ai pas un seul
Q: Vous venez d’évoquer les problèmes
techniques que vous rencontrez en filmant à l’étranger.
Mais le problème essentiel reste: comment pouvez-vous
créer, maintenant que vos racines avec la Turquie
Y.G: Le thème du prochain film tourne autour
de la prison. Je décris donc les ténèbres,
la tristesse, des choses qui ne nécessitent pas
de paysages, pas de nature.
Q: Pourquoi la prison?
Y.G: Il y a deux raisons: d’abord, c’est
le sujet le mieux approprié à la situation
actuelle de la Turquie. L’autre, c’est que
je ne suis pas encore prêt à tourner en
Q: Justement, vous êtes le cinéaste turc
qui décrit le plus le peuple et la nature de
son pays, mais vos films ne sont pas vus par vos concitoyens.
Et maintenant vous êtes coupé par l’exil
de ce peuple et de cette nature. Comment allez-vous
résoudre ce problème? Allez-vous vous
installer dans l’émigration?
Y.G: Nous trouverons certainement le moyen de faire
voir ce film (Yol) à notre peuple… Mais je
ne peux pas vous dire comment. Pour le reste, après
ce film sur la prison, je ne veux pas faire un film
sur le Kurdistan dans des conditions artificielles.
Q: Quand avez-vous su que vous étiez kurde?
Y.G: S’il faut le dire vraiement, je suis un
kurde assimilé: ma mère était kurde,
mon père était un kurde zaza. Pendant
toute mon enfance à la maison on parlait kurde
et zaza. Jusqu’à 15 ans j’ai parlé
kurde. Puis par la suite j’ai été
amené à me couper de mon milieu familial,
ce qui a nui à ma connaissance de moi-même.
Pendant tout ce temps, j’entendais des discours
disant: “Il n’y a pas de Kurdes, il
n’y a pas de langue kurde”. Mais j’entendais
parler et chanter kurde, je voyais que les Kurdes étaient
dans une situation très difficile. Mon père
est originaire de Siverek; je n’ai vu Siverek
qu’à l’âge de 16 ans. C’est
à ce moment là que ma prise de conscience
a été réelle. Là, j’ai
connu les souffrances d’une famille déracinée;
mes parents disaient: “ Vous êtes coupés
de vos racines”… Et à 34 ans j’ai
pu aller voir le pays de ma mère, Mouch, la tribu
des Jibran. L’origine de l’histoire du “Troupeau”,
c’est la fin de cette tribu nomade.
Q: Quelle place tiendra le Kurdistan dans vos prochains
Y.G: La question kurde est une question très
difficile, pas seulement en Turquie, mais aussi en Irak,
en Iran. Un jour je voudrais tourner le film relatant
l’histoire du combat d’un peuple pour sa
naissance — ou sa renaissance. Maintenant, c’est
un problème difficile. Il faut traiter l’écartèlement
du peuple kurde dans diverses perspectives. Il est difficile
d’approcher ce problème de façon
objective. L’histoire n’est pas seulement
remplie de victoires, mais elle est faite aussi de défaites,
d’erreurs, de tromperies…
Q: Le séjour en France, c’est une parenthèse
dans votre carrière?
Y.G: Je demeure en France par autorisation spéciale,
pour tourner ce film. Je suis autorisé à
résider en France le temps de le monter. Après,
je ne sais pas. Je ne veux pas parler du futur pour