Ghardaia province of Algeria

In the Ghardaia province of Algeria is a natural region called Mzab. It forms the northern part of Sahara Dessert. This place is being occupied by around 360,000 people (according to a census in the year of 2005). The Mzab is at the centre point of Wad Mzab valley. The origin of this place is a limestone plateau. A plateau is a raised area that is usually a plain terrain. In simple terms, it is said that it is a high land. Usually, these plateaus are formed by the volcanic eruptions or due to some sediment. In the case of Mzab, the plateau is formed by the sediment of carbonate rock. This in turn is composed of the left out fragments of the sea creatures like molluscs, coral and the similar organisms. This land will be rich in minerals and calcium. Due to this reason, the Mzab became a limestone plateau.

The letter and symbols being engraved in the Wad Mzab valley reveals that a Berber tribe lived in the southern part of Algeria in the past times. They are often referred to as Mozabites. These Mozabites became Muslims after the Muslim conquest of Maghreb. During 11th century, the Christianity also spread that converted some Mozabites to Christians. The Ottoman Algeria being occupied by France, the Mzab also came under the France. But within one year, this Mzab was returned back to the Algerian rule. Ghardaia turns out to be the capital of the Mzab.

Under the grouping named as a Pentapolis, Mzab is surrounded by five walled villages. Each of the citadels has a mosque whose minaret serves the purpose of watch tower. The houses over there are of standard size and similar type. They are constructed in concentric circles surrounding the mosque. The architecture is designed in such a way that the privacy is kept in mind. The building style of Mzab follows the style of Berber style. This type of architecture is also found in other parts of the places too. Visit this site to know in detail about the types of tools and things used I the construction. The valley of Mzab is being listed in the UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982. During the summer, the Mozabites gets migrated to one of the famous oasis in Sahara Dessert. It is the summer citadels. The local language of Mzab are Mozabites that belongs to the branch of Berber language.

Kurds

Kurds ; also said as Kurdish are the group of people. This ethnic group of people are Iranian who are native to Western Asia. In terms of Geography, this is the mountainous area. It is known as Kurdistan that encompasses the south eastern Turkey, Iran in North West, Iraq and Syria in the northern direction. Exclaves of Kurds are present in Anatolia and Khorasan. Along with the Kurdish people, there is another community of people called Kurdish Diaspora in the cities of Turkey. The Kurdish people ranges from the 30 million to 45 million people. The Kurdish ethnic group of people speak a Kurdish and Zaza Gorani language that belongs to the Indo European family. The religious point of Kurds is also diverse who follows many religious aspects like Yarsanism, Yazidism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism.

Kurdish is spoken by Kurds that has the collection of related dialects. The parts of Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Syria are collectively known comprised as Kurdistan. Kurdish is considered and spoken as a regional language in Iran. On the other hand, it is spoken as a minority language in Armenia. Most of the Kurds are capable of speaking their own mother language and other languages too. They are bilingual or multilingual. The Kurdish dialects are classified as the northern group (the Kurmanji dialect group), the Central group (a part of the Sorani dialect group) and the Southern group (a part of Sorani dialect group that includes Laki, Ardalani and Kermanshahi). The ethnic Kurds are Zaza and Gorani. One can see here now the dialects of Kurdish in detail.

The exact origin of the name is not clearly known to any one from the history of times. It is hypothesized that the term Kurd was originated from a Persian word. In the 20th and the 21st century, the women were treated well and rights were given to them equally. Inspite of many advancements in the Kurdish society; there are many social problems that still persists in the society. Some of such problems are gender equality, child marriages and forced marriages for the bride or groom, killings keeping honour in the mind and so on.

Amidst the Kurds, the practice of piercing tattoos in their body is widespread. The ink used in tattoo is made from some unusual combination of substances like breast milk, some toxic substances taken from the bladder of some animals and soot. They are more prevalent among women that among the men.

The Kurdish beliefs and religions

The Kurdish beliefs and religions have been there in the world for centuries and people all around the world have been following it for some time now. A lot of research has been happening on this topic and there are more readers who want to know more on this topic and thus understand what they are actually dealing with. The people in this area have been present in the area where Abrahamic or Semitic religions the Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are present and actually based in.

The religion that is most widely practiced on the Kurdish custom is Islam and present in the area around the place. The area around Iraq is the most prominent among others most of them like the Sunni Muslims and the Shiite Muslims and even other people though are a minority have been known to practice other religions like Christianity and Judaism and then even Aramaic which is said to be the language spoken by Jesus Christ. There are other religions as well in the lot Yezidism and Babaism that has the same property.

They are one of the most tolerant sets of people where these people have been widely recognized and they can be called as a set of few religions in which there is equality among people and then there needs to be equality among people one way or the other. The main purpose of the tolerance practice has to understand what happens in the right manner as much as possible. The main purpose is that they have been through the years the Kurdish people have to identify what is happening in the right way as much as possible. They have been suffering through years of sacrifice and even though in the hands of their brothers themselves.

The Kurdish people cannot be called as they belong to the section of Islam as such and they are related more to the section called Medes and are those that are described in the Bible. Most Kurds were initially Christians and only in a later stage, they were all converted to Islam. After the country Israel separated and the Kurdish Jews have been told to Muslim neighbors who are very sad based on their loss and have all been in a good place in which there is a great honor in understanding their friends and enjoying the life with them as we see these things as much as possible and have a great relationship.

The architecture in the area of Turkey

The architecture in the area of Turkey has in itself been very famous and an inspiration to a lot of people to enjoy through one way or the other. The architecture style can be primarily called the Ottoman architecture and is one particular period that excelled in creating architecture designs in the right time as much as possible and that too I the maximum influence as much as possible. There are three main periods of architecture through the Turkish history and we can understand each one in detail and understand things one way or the other.

The first one is the Original and Ottoman architecture and was extended over a hundred years and was mainly based on mosques and palaces around the period and there are towers and spires as we see them all around and at the same time, we can all be easily understood about the situation as such. But at the same time, French and Italian architecture is also making sure that there is one way or the other there is an influence one way or the other. At the same time, the influence is visible and the art lovers have been understanding the situation as much as possible.

The next phase is the demonstration of other empires in which we can see the next phase and then there is a representation of new architecture and then see that the new architecture follows the fall of the Ottoman architecture. The simple square and rectangles are the shape of the block structure and hence the domes and the spires were not included as much as possible and then there is a simple, straight design which is as good as the ottoman empire.

The contemporary architecture in itself is found in all the places from the biggest cities to the smallest villages as much as possible. Some architects have been showcasing the wonderful architecture and then there is a guesthouse along with community homes and even business building as much as possible. The other contemporary hotels and other stadiums around the place are all famous for their unique nature and even have been receiving accolades and awards.

It is no just about the style and there is an importance to the place which makes it a hub for energy production and is a place that has its own unique value overbuilding and making sure there are unique designs which when we look at this is too good to miss.

Tourism in Turkey

Turkey is well known as a tourist’s delight all over the world. It has great historical sites and beautiful seaside resorts to attract all kinds of tourists. The seaside resorts which are beautiful and luxurious spread along the Aegean and Mediterranean Seacoasts. It is also well known for its culture and health and spa care. Istanbul, the capital, is on all the lists of top places to visit. It has a large number of hotels catering to all kinds of tourists. It is both a traditional as well as a modern city offering different things to different people. Major attractions are:

  • Istanbul: this city is the largest city in Turkey. It is a leading global city. It has many major attractions which are historical in nature. It was the capital of Byzantine and Ottoman Empires. The most famous buildings are Sultan Ahmed Mosque, the Hagia Sophia, the Basilica Cistern, the Galata Tower, the Grand Bazaar, the Spice Bazaar, and many more such amazing wonders.
  • Cruises and Beaches: many of the western tourists come to Turkey looking for its pristine beaches. Most of the beach resorts are located along the seacoast and is known as the Turkish Riviera. Antalya is very famous and is called the tourism capital of Turkey.
  • Cultural Sites: there are many cultural attractions all over the country. These include Ephesus, Troy, Pamukkale, Trabzon, Konya, Didyma, Church of Antioch, Mardin and many more. Turkey has a rich culture and almost every corner of the country has some or other hidden gems.
  • Caves: Cappadocia caves are famous for their uniqueness. These are ancient caves which were carved by nature and used by monks and other people. Some of these caves have been turned into hotels. You can stay there and have a unique experience. You can check the site online to learn about the hotels.

Earlier, the number of tourists was really huge. Since a couple of decades, the number has been coming down. The reasons have been many. Mainly it is the political unrest which the country has seen. Also, the region where Turkey is located is also not very stable politically and economically. In fact, the government is going all out to attract tourists. They have even asked the Turkish people living in different parts of the world to spend their holidays in the country. It still attracts a big number of tourists from Russia and some of the European countries. Apart from tourists, Turkey also gets a large number of scholars and historians who come to do research and learn more about the country and its culture.

Kurdish Culture

People from different countries and different regions have a very wide variety of cultural and traditional traits. Kurdistan is a beautiful place with a lot of natural beauty and a long history. Unfortunately, the situation in the last few decades has come to a point that tourists are wary and very few people visit it. Kurdish Culture is very distinctive and specific to the people of Kurdistan. It is a very ancient culture and the Kurdish people are spread around in different areas. This has caused different influences to get incorporated with their original culture. Kurds are now living in western Asia, Middle-East, parts of Iraq, Iran, and, Syria. They are also present in parts of Armenia, Azerbaijan and also in faraway South America. There is a lot of controversy about the origins, history, and, their political future of the Kurdish people. However, they have some very distinctive cultural features.

1. Language: the Kurdish language is part of the Indo-European language family, on the Iranian branch. Because of their spread into different countries and regions, the language has taken words and inflections from different languages. It is written in the Arabic alphabet in Iraq and Syria and in Latin script in Turkey.

2. Music: music is an important part of the Kurdish culture. Traditionally it has been used to tell stories and record history. Most popular musicians of the 20th century sang in Turkish or Persian as well as in Kurdish. Apart from the language, the music has influences from the different areas and the tunes and sounds are also different.

3. Food: they have some wonderful mouth-watering recipes and you must try the authentic Kurdish food when you go there. Pej, which is rice stuffed in grape leaves, shifta, which is meat patties, and ser u pe( goat’s head, tongue, and feet) are some of the unique traditional dishes that you can sample. Lamb and chicken are the staple meats. Vegetables and dairy products also are a big part of the traditional Kurdish cuisine.

4. Religion: the Kurdish people have different religions depending on the country in which they live or have cultural links with. Most common religion among Kurds is Sunni Islam, which is practiced by 98% of Kurds living in Iraqi Kurdistan. Religion has come to be a major and fundamental part of what it means to be a Kurd. If you ever plan a trip to Kurdistan or meet any Kurdish people in any of the areas that they are in then it is good to show them that you know and understand their culture. You can learn more on the web and understand the uniqueness of these people.

Kurdistan from Turkey

Both of these countries are beautiful and attract a lot of tourists. Unfortunately, there has been a decrease in the number of tourists visiting these places. This is because of the various conflicts which have plagued them for many decades. If you are still interested in these places and would like to make the effort to go and see them then you have to plan well. Gather as much information as possible. Talk to people who have visited this place. Develop contacts with the locals if possible. Check all the websites related to these places and also read as much as you can. Click this link for information.

There are some things which you can keep in mind while planning your trip.

  • There is a lot of questioning at the border. Everyone, including Arabs and other foreigners, will need to have proper paperwork and documents. Deportation and sometimes even detainment is possible if you are not prepared.
  • Start your tour with the safe areas. It is better to spend some time and understand the situation before you venture into the more dangerous areas. Erbil is one of the safest cities in the area. Kurdistan has more restrictions for people coming from Turkey.
  • North Iraq was spared wars and is a different place when compared with South Iraq. The terrorist activity here is minimal and there has been a massive influx of foreign investment and aid. Iraqi Kurdistan is now called the “gateway to Iraq”.
  • Be careful while talking to people. Don’t get into discussions and arguments about nationalist issues with the locals. Read and brush up your history before you start your travels.
  • Though Kurdish people are friendly, it is good to understand that certain topics and issues should not be raked up. Never call a Kurdish person an Iraqi.
  • Europeans will find the lack of women in public spaces a bit strange. More than ninety percent of the people in the crowd are men. Women rarely, if ever, travel alone.
  • If you are a woman, remember to cover your hair and not hang around in tea houses or cafes on your own. Avoid going out after dark by yourself.

You will find that the Kurdish people are friendly and in fact, they are curious to learn about you. If given a chance they would like to ask you all kind of questions. Most of them are not aware of other cultures and are not well versed with world affairs. Remember to go with an open mind and be ready for new experiences.

Break the windows

“Break the windows so that the birds are free”, title not definitive of his last film, tells the story of a revolt in a prison. The revolt is led by the children – we see Yilmaz Guney explain to an amateur actor, of Uruguayan origin, who plays the role of a guardian, how to react when one of the children threatens him with a huge kitchen knife. 

Making a movie with children as actors is not an easy task. Ask any filmmaker and they will tell you that working with children and animals are the two things which require a lot of patience. It is even more difficult when the children don’t speak the language or are from a foreign land. It was the same for Yilmaz Guney who made a movie about a revolt in a prison. The revolt is led by children and though there were adults in the movie, there were many children in the movie. If you want to know more about this movie you can check on the related site.

But the revolt will be muted, and the film ends on the arrival of new children to the prison. Reconstitute the very special atmosphere that reigns inside a prison is very difficult with amateur actors. Yilmaz Guney gets away with “poetic realism”.

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Here is how you can invest in silver

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Bullion

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Silver Futures and Options

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Silver ETFs are funds traded on the stock exchange. They are a bundle of the third-party assets, and the value of your investment is dependent on how the third party assets perform.

The silver ETF will track the market price of silver. Investing in silver ETF is a popular choice because it gives you high liquidity and you do not have to own the silver, which means that you do not have to worry about the logistics.

KURDISTAN de Turquie: la dernière interview de Yilmaz Guney

Une vieille abbaye dans un petit village au nord de la France vit à l’heure turque. Sur le porche de l’abbaye, l’inscription “Prison Centrale”, en turc, insolite, à côté d’une statue de la Vierge. Partout, des inscriptions à la gloire de la Turquie kémaliste: “Quel bonheur pour qui se dit Turc”. Dans la cour de l’abbaye des murs ont été construits pour délimiter les espaces dans lesquels les prisonniers font leur promenade quotidienne sous la surveillance d’un gendarme juché sur une tour de guet. C’est étonnant la facilité avec laquelle une abbaye se transforme en prison. Dans l’allée qui mène au bâtiment principal, une Cadillac, avec une plaque d’Ankara, avance lentement au milieu d’une foule de femmes coiffées d’un fichu et d’hommes au pantalon bouffant. 

Le tournage du “Mur”

Yilmaz Guney pendant une pause

A côté de la camera, Yilmaz Guney, en train de tourner l’arrivée de l’inspecteur général des prisons — l’inspecteur est un français, c’est même un membre du cabinet de Jack Lang, le ministre de la culture. Toujours souriant, d’une extrême douceur, Yilmaz Guney se bat au milieu d’une armée de figurants.

“Brisez les vitres pour que se libèrent les oiseaux”, titre pas définitif de son dernier film, raconte l’histoire d’une révolte dans une prison. La révolte est dirigée par les enfants — nous voyons Yilmaz Guney expliquer à un acteur amateur, d’origine uruguayenne, qui joue le rôle d’un gardien, comment réagir quand un des enfants le menace avec un immense couteau de cuisine. Mais la révolte sera matée, et le film se termine sur l’arrivée de nouveaux enfants à la prison. Reconstituer l’atmosphère très spéciale qui règne à l’intérieur d’une prison est très difficile avec des acteurs amateurs. Yilmaz Guney s’en tire en recourant au “réalisme poétique”.

Une armée de figurants et d’acteurs amateurs

Yilmaz Guney dirigeant un de ses acteurs

Yilmaz Guney tourne avec une centaine d’enfants kurdes qui dorment dans le dortoir de l’abbaye — certains sont venus de Berlin Ouest — et avec entre 100 et 200 figurants adultes: gardiens de prison, parents de détenus, qui travaillent dans les ateliers de confection ou dans les usines de la région parisienne. Une centaine de techniciens amateurs vivent aussi avec Guney dans l’abbaye. Les enfants sont ravis, et de très bons acteurs: “Imaginez quelle aventure cela peut être pour des enfants qui, à Berlin ou dans la banlieue parisienne, ne peuvent même pas rêver d’une vie décente. Et les voilà vedettes”.

En temps normal les locaux de l’abbaye servent de salles de classes pour l’école du village. Une école bien traditionnelle; Sur le mur d’une salle de classe enfantine on voit affiché au mur le règlement, écrit par les écoliers, avec notamment ceette règle: “Il est défendu de rêver pendant les classes”. Pour être plus libre, Guney a refusé les propositions de grosses maisons de production. Mais le producteur qu’il a choisi lui a imposé des conditions de travail draconiennes. Rien ne doit filtrer sur le scénario du film avant la date choisie par le producteur pour le lancement. L’entretien que Yilmaz Guney a cependant bien voulu nous accorder est une exception remarquable à la consigne de silence qui lui a été donnée…

Q: Rétrospectivement, comment jugez-vous vos films “Le Troupeau” (Suru) et “La Permission” (Yol)?

Yilmaz Guney: Comme tous les créateurs de Turquie et du Kurdistan, nous avons rencontré sur notre chemin des difficultés dûes à la nature oppressive du régime. Durant toute ma vie de créateur, j’ai été amené à chercher des moyens parfois détournés pour exprimer ma pensée, et je dois reconnaître avec franchise que toutes mes oeuvres jusqu’à ce jour n’ont pas totalement exprimé ce que je voulais, ni dans leur forme ni dans leur esprit. L’élément dominant de ces oeuvres, c’est qu’elles sont des solutions de compromis.

“Le Troupeau”, en fait, c’est l’histoire du peuple kurde, mais je n’ai même pas pu utiliser la langue kurde dans ce film. Si on avait utilisé le kurde, tous ceux qui ont collaboré à ce film auraient été mis en prison.

Dans le cas de “Yol”, l’essentiel devait être axé sur Diyarbekir, Ourfa et Siirt. Bien que le film ait été monté en Europe, je n’ai pas réussi à faire tous les doublages en kurde. J’ai essayé de créer cette atmosphère par des doublages, par la musique…

Q: Puisque les principaux personnages de vos films sont les Kurdes et le Kurdistan, comment pourrez-vous continuer de tourner en dehors de votre pays?

Y.G: Ici, nous sommes devant l’impasse suivante: nous n’avons pratiquement qu’un seul acteur professionnel (Tuncel Kurtiz, qui joue le personnage du père dans “Le Troupeau”); tous les autres sont des amateurs qui n’ont jamais joué dans un film. Il est impossible de faire venir des acteurs professionnels de Turquie… et même ceux qui sont en Europe n’osent pas venir jouer avec moi: ils refusent même de me parler.

Q: Comment est-ce possible? les acteurs turcs ne sont pas fiers de jouer pour un metteur en scène qui a obtenu la Palme d’or à Venise?

Y.G: Ceux qui entonnent des chants révolutionnaires dans les périodes de calme préfèrent se cacher derrière les portes pendant les périodes difficiles… Bref, j’ai un cameraman turc, mais les techniciens ne sont pas professionnels; pour les décors, par exemple, je n’ai pas un seul professionnel.

Q: Vous venez d’évoquer les problèmes techniques que vous rencontrez en filmant à l’étranger. Mais le problème essentiel reste: comment pouvez-vous créer, maintenant que vos racines avec la Turquie sont coupées?

Y.G: Le thème du prochain film tourne autour de la prison. Je décris donc les ténèbres, la tristesse, des choses qui ne nécessitent pas de paysages, pas de nature.

Q: Pourquoi la prison?

Y.G: Il y a deux raisons: d’abord, c’est le sujet le mieux approprié à la situation actuelle de la Turquie. L’autre, c’est que je ne suis pas encore prêt à tourner en Europe.

Q: Justement, vous êtes le cinéaste turc qui décrit le plus le peuple et la nature de son pays, mais vos films ne sont pas vus par vos concitoyens. Et maintenant vous êtes coupé par l’exil de ce peuple et de cette nature. Comment allez-vous résoudre ce problème? Allez-vous vous installer dans l’émigration?

Y.G: Nous trouverons certainement le moyen de faire voir ce film (Yol) à notre peuple… Mais je ne peux pas vous dire comment. Pour le reste, après ce film sur la prison, je ne veux pas faire un film sur le Kurdistan dans des conditions artificielles.

Q: Quand avez-vous su que vous étiez kurde?

Y.G: S’il faut le dire vraiement, je suis un kurde assimilé: ma mère était kurde, mon père était un kurde zaza. Pendant toute mon enfance à la maison on parlait kurde et zaza. Jusqu’à 15 ans j’ai parlé kurde. Puis par la suite j’ai été amené à me couper de mon milieu familial, ce qui a nui à ma connaissance de moi-même. Pendant tout ce temps, j’entendais des discours disant: “Il  n’y a pas de Kurdes, il n’y a pas de langue kurde”. Mais j’entendais parler et chanter kurde, je voyais que les Kurdes étaient dans une situation très difficile. Mon père est originaire de Siverek; je n’ai vu Siverek qu’à l’âge de 16 ans. C’est à ce moment là que ma prise de conscience a été réelle. Là, j’ai connu les souffrances d’une famille déracinée; mes parents disaient: “ Vous êtes coupés de vos racines”… Et à 34 ans j’ai pu aller voir le pays de ma mère, Mouch, la tribu des Jibran. L’origine de l’histoire du “Troupeau”, c’est la fin de cette tribu nomade.

Q: Quelle place tiendra le Kurdistan dans vos prochains films?

Y.G: La question kurde est une question très difficile, pas seulement en Turquie, mais aussi en Irak, en Iran. Un jour je voudrais tourner le film relatant l’histoire du combat d’un peuple pour sa naissance — ou sa renaissance. Maintenant, c’est un problème difficile. Il faut traiter l’écartèlement du peuple kurde dans diverses perspectives. Il est difficile d’approcher ce problème de façon objective. L’histoire n’est pas seulement remplie de victoires, mais elle est faite aussi de défaites, d’erreurs, de tromperies…

Q: Le séjour en France, c’est une parenthèse dans votre carrière?

Y.G: Je demeure en France par autorisation spéciale, pour tourner ce film. Je suis autorisé à résider en France le temps de le monter. Après, je ne sais pas. Je ne veux pas parler du futur pour l’instant…

(The Middle East magazine, January 1983)